How to use the UV lamp safely and efficiently? You care about the use of UV lamps knowledge, here are all!

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1 Ultraviolet light and its germicidal principle

1) UV classification

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Electromagnetic wave properties

De Broglie wave formula: P=h/λ (h means Planck’s constant)

The shorter the wavelength, the higher the energy

Short-wave UV is commonly used to sterilize

h=6.62606957(29)×10-34 J-s , where the unit of energy is J

If eV-s (electron volt-s) is the unit of energy, it is h=4.13566743(35)×10-15 eV-s

2) UVC sterilization principle

Bacteria/viruses have a peak absorption of light waves at 250-270nm, and the absorbed UV light can destroy the structure of its genetic material DNA so that it dies or loses the ability to reproduce, to achieve the purpose of sterilization. UVC light is like a unique and powerful “light knife”, is a broad-spectrum sterilization method.

UVC sterilization process.

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Spectral sterilization by UVC.

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3) Germicidal time of common bacteria by UVC

UVC can be broad-spectrum sterilization, in a certain UVC illumination, the required sterilization time is shown in the following table (UVC energy is equal to the illumination times the time).

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Germicidal efficiency of different wavelengths of UVC

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4) The mechanism of ozone generation and sterilization

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Common methods of ozone generation.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet light call ionization
  2. High-frequency electrical excitation

Low-pressure mercury lamp spectral distribution

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Sterilization Mechanism of Ozone

Ozone is a strong oxidant and the sterilization process is a biochemical oxidation reaction. o₃ sterilization has the following 3 forms.

  1. Ozone can oxidize and decompose the enzymes needed for glucose inside bacteria, causing them to inactivate and die.
  2. Directly interacting with bacteria and viruses, destroying their cell walls, DNA and RNA, causing damage to the metabolism of the bacteria and leading to their death.
  3. To penetrate through the cell membrane and invade into the cell, acting on the lipoproteins of the outer membrane and the internal lipopolysaccharide, causing the bacteria to undergo permeability distortion and lysis.

2 UV lamps in different scenarios

1) Scene 1: Hospital/clinic/food factory/school/clean room, etc.

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2) Scene 2: Hospital/clinic/food factory/school/clean room, etc.

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3) Scene3: Commonly used disinfection at home

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4) Scene4: Home/commercial/factory/bank Office, restaurant, warehouse

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5) Scene5: Sterilization of goods, such as warehouses/logistics and express delivery stations, etc.

Use scenario: For disinfecting the surface of goods exported externally or circulating in the region in high-risk areas.

Function: To disinfect the external surface of goods and protect the safety of delivery personnel and recipients.

Note: Medium power UV lamp installed on four sides of the inner wall of the box can effectively disinfect the external six sides of the cargo box
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3 How to buy the right UV lamp

First, select the category

There are low-pressure mercury lamps on the market and LED UV lamps.

Low-pressure mercury lamp is currently the mainstream product, life 8000 hours, the main wavelength is germicidal efficiency 253.7nm, radiation efficiency to single-ended 18W for example, in more than 23%, high power up to 30-40%, and the lamp power from 1W to 300W, can meet the needs of different use scenarios, light maintenance rate is high.

LED long life, the current low efficiency, about 3%, low power, in the milliwatt level mainly; the current mainstream wavelength is 275nm . Overall, LED UVC prospect is good, currently suitable for small space disinfection such as contact lens disinfection, other scenarios due to the cost performance is not advantageous, more suitable for professionals to use experimentally.

Second, choose the material

Take the mainstream product low-pressure mercury lamp as an example. Low-pressure mercury lamps on the market are quartz tubes and high boron glass two categories.

Quartz tube UVC germicidal lamps.

1, the highest UV transmission materials, can transmit more than 90% of the 253.7nm UV.

2, UV intensity, long life, light decay is small, good sterilization effect, lamp life is generally greater than 8000 hours.

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High boron tube UVC germicidal lamp.

1, high boron glass transmission 253.7nm UVC only about 50%.

2, its UV irradiation intensity is small, short life. Several old international companies do well, such as Philips / Osram.

Third, choose whether to contain ozone

Quartz UV lamps are divided into ozone and non-ozone.

Need to make a choice of specific use scenarios. Such as disinfection boxes or warehouse goods disinfection, need to use with ozone. (Note: Since ozone is harmful to cultural relics/paintings, etc., you need to consult a professional before use.)

Doped (Ti, Ce) quartz glass for ozone-free UV lamps.

Natural quartz glass, used for ozone-bearing UV lamps.

Synthetic quartz glass, higher cost, used for more demanding UV lamps.

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The difference between ozone and non-ozone lamps.

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Fourth, choose the power

Space disinfection a square configuration 1W, high requirements can be a cubic configuration 1.5W, that is, the floor height of 3 meters, for example, each square meter needs 4.5 watts.

Consideration of dose

Pneumoconiosis coronavirus is similar in structure to SARS virus and is also sensitive to UV radiation, as reported by CCTV in late 2003: 30w UV lamp kills the virus in 30 minutes at a distance of 1 m. The UV illumination at 1 m is 90 µW/cm2. The dose is: 90X30X60=162,000 microwatts-sec/cm2 Illumination * time = UV energy value.

Illumination time calculation

Calculation: 30W wall-mounted germicidal lamp as an example, a certain distance measured under the UVC illumination for the divisor, the calculated value is the time required. For example, at 20 cm, the measured 1000 microwatts / cm2 (of course, its illumination distribution and the corresponding lamp location), the calculated irradiation time is 2.7 minutes. (Illuminance is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.)

One of the reasons why viruses are much harder to kill than bacteria is that the (volume) area of viruses (light is not the same as high temperature, taking into account the area factor) is much smaller than that of bacteria. For example, in the general experimental reference E. coli, the area is about 10 times larger than the average virus. Of course, there are also differences in their DNA/RNA and outer wall factors.

Radiation dose (recommended)

UV UVC 253.7nm: General disinfection: 10,000 µW-sec/cm2 Disinfection of high-risk viruses such as New Coronavirus: 100,000 µW-sec/cm2

Fifth, choose a formal manufacturer or brand

The more non-professional users, the more you should choose a manufacturer with professional values and a sense of social responsibility. The market is mixed, inferior products and even fake goods, the function of all-embracing best not to touch. The price is very low, but also respect and stay away. For unfamiliar manufacturers, you need to confirm their qualifications and the test reports of authoritative institutions.

In order to use the convenience, and improve security, give priority to products with remote control, timer, radar / infrared sensor.

4 UV lamp use precautions

During disinfection, people and pets, animals to leave the disinfection room, can not be directly irradiated to people, prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light will cause burns to the eyes and skin; can not look directly at the bright lamp with the naked eye to avoid eye redness and burns; at the same time the high-grade silk, leather, paintings, valuable collectibles, important souvenirs to protect the light;.

Open the window for 20 minutes after disinfection, and wait 60 minutes for the ozone to decompose before entering the room to open the window.

Lamps should be collected after the end of disinfection to avoid damage to sterilization and personal injury caused by children’s misuse.

Q: Can masks be reused after disinfection with UV+Ozone?

A: It can be done as an emergency solution in case there are really not enough masks. After ozone disinfection, there is the smell of ozone, which can be put in a ventilated place to let it eliminate naturally.

Q: How is the dose of UV and ozone calculated?

A: UV: 90μW.S/cm2 UV intensity, irradiation for 30 minutes Ozone: concentration at 20.3mg/cubic, action time >15 minutes.